Selected Works – EDUC 813

It Takes A Village

Working Together Towards Healing

This project based on the redevelopment of a program that I created approximately 10 years ago and have since been facilitating for First Nations organizations and communities in various provinces across Canada ever since. Originally the idea for the program was born out of a demand from First Nation’s administrations seeking to better understand a phenomenon now referred to within the First Nation’s population as lateral violence[1] (Aboriginal Healing Foundation, 2014). My research is inclusive of my own subjective experiences as a mixed race women living and working in an indigenous context and critical feedback I have received from clients over the years. I Lateral violence is a nebulous term being used to describe a spectrum of behaviors that range from passive aggression and shunning to more severe forms of bullying and self harm sometimes resulting in suicidal ideation and completed suicide. The consensus is that these complex social problems stem directly from the wounding and cascading affects of residential school[2] and ongoing systemic oppression or what Indigenous scholar, Dr. Gregory Cajete, refers to as the affects of ethnostress. Communities report that these troubling behaviors are pervasive in all contexts including the home, parenting, organizational and work life, and education and ceremonial environments and dramatically and negatively affect quality of life. I found the following anonymous quote in the report conducted by the Aboriginal Healing Foundation in 2014:

“I have not confronted my abuser who was another student. I don’t know how he would respond. I haven’t gone there. I would really like to take advantage of some kind of meaningful process. I don’t think the legal system belongs here; it won’t work for healing. I would rather see some sort of a healing strategy, whether it is a healing or sharing circle. It has to be something that has a bit more meaning to it than just punishment. — Study participant, Aboriginal Healing Foundation”

Although some research has been done to better understand the issue of lateral violence there exists relatively little information on it. Clients who have engaged my services have repeatedly reported that conventional approaches such as conflict resolution, skills training and development, and behavioral and clinical intervention programs employed in the past have failed to address the problem effectively. They do not go deep enough to create the kind of transformation and healing that is yearned for.

A growing interest in understanding the root causes of lateral violence, ways to prevent incidents and reduce harm as well as a desire to build over all capacity within communities to effectively respond to the growing problem has resulted in continued engagement of my services in communities predominantly throughout British Columbia as well as other provinces throughout Canada. My experiences working with over 120 communities and organizations in an effort to better understand lateral violence has resulted in an informal process of action research[3] (Koshy et al 2010). I agree with Justice Murray Sinclair (2014) in an interview with CBC Radio that “communities need both the time and space to come together in safety, to communicate, heal and develop relationships as a way of finding their own community centered solutions to these problems”. Dr. Gregory Cajete speaks to the need for a new vision for Indigenous peoples that is founded on traditional ways of being in a contemporary world.

This issue is both deeply personal as well as of professional interest to me. Being of First Nation’s descent, mixed Squamish Nation and European ancestry, and living and working on reserve I witness the affects first hand of the wounding and suffering within my own community and feel called to play a role in finding sustainable solutions. Over the years I have evolved my ideas about how to address the issue of lateral violence and have come to realize that lateral violence is phenomenological[4] and requires further ongoing exploration by communities. There are no easy answers. A commitment to further community centered case study research[5] is required in order to fully understand how to support communities in engaging in individual and collective transformation and healing is necessary if this cycle is to be transcended by future generations. A model of Indigenous education and healing must be employed as the tacit infrastructure of western philosophy continues to perpetuate objectification of Indigenous peoples and of the problem itself.

In this paper I outline the development of a program to be delivered within community settings to initiate dialogue and raise awareness of the issue of lateral violence. The focus will be on creating a safe context in which further exploration, healing and transformation can take place. Acknowledging that this is the first step in a long journey. Paulo Freire (1993) describes this process in Pedagogy of the Oppressed (pg. 46) as raising consciousness so that the oppressed can see themselves and their situation differently. Self-actualization is a life long process that requires nurturing. The program will be rooted in traditional and contemplative approaches and will incorporate consideration of the complexity of issues that need to be named and discussed while inviting diverse groups into generative dialogue[6] (Gunnlaugson, 2010, p. 140). Creating the conditions in which generative dialogue can take place will support participants to develop a better understanding of themselves and each other in relationship to the problem and to discover sustainable solutions that are generated from within the community.

The is entitled “It Takes A Village” and the pedagogy will be rooted Indignenous pedagogy, transformative learning theory, contemplative inquiry, and care ethics. I will also be drawing on research and best practices in the areas of process and developmental attachment psychology, organizational systems theory, relationship research, neuroscience and social and emotional learning theory. I’ve chosen to entitle the program as such because I feel strongly that it will first take a strengthening of our relationships to one another in order to work together collaboratively to transcend the cycle of lateral violence.

Transformative education takes time, requires a highly participatory approach and requires a move away from “cognicentrism” or giving preference to only cognitive learning and ways of knowing. In the Journal of Transformative Education, Ferrer, Romero and Albareda (2005) describe transformation occurring in creative cycles or seasons and including knowledge emerging from not only the mind but the body, heart, vital and spirit. This aligns well with First Nation’s epistemology. Space and time needs to be created to nurture and re-awaken these ways of knowing in order to access emerging wisdom and to initiate a truly transformative process. Place based knowledge, personal, environmental and spiritual ecologies, and subjective experiences are central to an Indigenous approach. The inclusion of elders along with the use of prayer, singing and drumming, guided visualization, myth, story telling, art making, evoking the ancestors and peacemaking circles are a few of the methods effective in creating an environment conducive to generative dialogue and participatory learning and transformation. It is important that we honor Indigenous wisdom and ways of knowing not only as a way of creating balance individually and collectively but because these ways of knowing that are so needed have been marginalized (Cassidy and Marsden, 2009, pg. 2) leading to the perpetuation of systemic oppression.

Transformation is process orientated and includes challenges and difficulties along the way. Therefore, a commitment to undertake the program over a longer term is advisable. However, since funding is an issue it is important to remain flexible in terms of customizing the program so that it is accessible to communities. I am asked on a regular basis to provide everything from one-hour lectures on the issue of lateral violence to longer-term workshops and engagements that occur over months or even years. The audience varies and includes everyone form administrators and leaders to healthcare workers, social services staff, educators and community members. Part of the challenge I face in unfolding an Indigenous approach to transforming lateral violence is differentiating myself from competitors who are applying behaviorial mainstream models that appear to provide quick fixes but that do not actually affect sustainable change and transformation over the long term. In short, unless people are engaged on a personal level that is culturally relevant and provided with supports they slip back into old behaviors. Dr. Gordon Neufeld (Making Sense of Aggression Course) states that assuming that if people know better they will behave better is a fallacy. This has never work. People need change from the inside out that leads to a more fully developed sense of self. A sense of self that can take up a relationship with one’s traumas and life experiences as well as with the world around them.

First Nations communities and administrations today are populated and influenced by people from a diversity of ethnicities, cultures and socio-economic backgrounds. Lateral violence is a phenomena that is often unfolding in the background due to unspoken differences that go unidentified and unaddressed leading to a breakdown in relationships over time including harmful and even violent behaviors. Due to the sensitivity of issues such as race, age, gender, sex, and class I have also chosen to include Nel Nodding’s Ethic of Care in the development of this program. In Caring, A Relational Approach to Ethics and Moral Education, Nel Noddings describes care as a relational phenomenon that unfolds in the context of relationship with other requiring something she call motivational displacement and engrossment in the other. It is the feminine spirit or Eros as opposed to Logos, the masculine. Noddings describes how the mother’s voice has been silenced in discussions of moral ethics and as a result the world is wracked with fighting, killing, vandalism and psychic and spiritual pain mostly occurring in the name of principle. Until recently discussions about ethical behavior have been rooted in a more masculine spirit (Noddings, 2013, pg. 1). Nodding’s Ethics of Care aligns well with some of the universal First Nations’ values such as respect, caring, kindness, truth and integrity. Colonization continues to be perpetuated by a western philosophical approach to education and health that has been widely and unquestioningly adopted. This tacit infrastructure unconsciously perpetuates objectification and marginalization of Indigenous people creating an imbalance in our communities and in the world. A calling forth of the feminine spirit and Indigenous epistemology in regards to the way we live and work together is a wise and necessary step.

The role of leaders and educators facilitating transformation and healing in communities is central to the success of any initiatives undertaken. For this reason whomever it is occupying these roles must embody an ethic of care that communicates receptivity, compassion, and concern for both the individual and collective. Integrity, strength and a commitment to develop what Indigenous Educator and Simon Fraser University Professor, Dr. Vicki Kelly refers to as “two-eyed seeing”. In other words the ability to walk in two worlds and integrate two world views as a way of moving towards reconciliation. Parker Palmer (2007) states in The Courage to Teach, that you teach who you are. This is an important part of the informal curriculum. Participants are looking to the facilitator and reading the implied moral messages being transmitted through non-verbal cues, verbal cues and actions. If incongruences become evident it could destroy the integrity of the program and trust can potentially be broken. Ultimately, It’s more about being authentic and less about being polished and intellectual.

Dr. Nel Noddings Ethics of Care and Dr. Gregory Cajete’s approach to Indigenous Education will influence both the formal and informal curriculum. The facilitator must model values consistent with care and an Indigenous epistemology. Otherwise, facilitating discussions about traditional models of healing and transformation would seen as incongruent and less impactful.  Canadian Educational Philosopher, Jean Vanier’s states in his book, Becoming Human, that the conflict  human’s face in their development encompasses  two competing drives that are the source of great inner conflict and even suffering. Vanier speaks to the loneliness we all experience along our journey and that we are torn by the deep need to belong as well as a yearning to become all that we can be. This is a dynamic that can be clearly seen within First Nation’s communities as people strive to become their own person in order to reach their full potential but experience loss or rejection for being different.  We have lost the wisdom of our elders who knew each person served a unique purpose that was meant to be fulfilled. This results in an unconscious group dynamic that can keep people very stuck. Unconscious drives to have basic needs met can create a false sense of security leading to a build of up immense frustration. This program will endeavor to create a space where participants can get to know themselves better but also reconnect with that vital sense of belonging to all things. A discussion about the conflict between self-actualization and belonging may be useful in order to develop greater awareness and compassion amongst participants.

Dr. Gregory Cajete offers The Indigenous Stages of Developmental Learning in his book Look To The Mountain, An Ecology of Indigenous Education in which he outlines 8 stages of interrelationship that form a creative continuum, lifeway, that helps us to become more fully human as we move through the stages of our lives. These stages revolved around and integrate find our center, sense of tradition, empowerment, spirituality, respect, sense of place, learning relationships, relativity, and deep learning. The stages are as follows:

  • Basic learning
  • Societal education: survival skills
  • Myth, ritual and ceremony
  • Integration with tribal culture
  • Visioning
  • Individuation
  • Enlightenment wisdom
  • Transformational understanding

Knowledge of these stages will deeply inform our educational approach to transforming Lateral Violence.

“Achieving harmony, peace of mind, and health were ideal goals that were anything but easy to attain. They had to be actively sought, sacrificed, and prayed for. The elders of Indigenous community knew by experience that true learning causes change and at times may elicit a transformation of self at a person’s very core. Transformation is a breaking apart to reform at a higher level of being and understanding. It its real expression in people, transformation is anything but peaceful and harmonious. Indigenous community recognized this aspect of true learning and provided for it through ritual preparation, rites of passage, and initiations. Society, rituals, healing ceremonies, sports, pilgrimages, vision quests, and other rites provided the communal context in which individuals might attain one of Indigenous education’s highest goals, that of completing one’s self”

Dr. Gregory Cajete, Indigenous Scholar and Author

Contemplative inquiry and approaches will be a foundational part of this program. In Contemplative Learning Across Disciplines the authors state their assumption that any thing can be taught with a contemplative orientation. Specifically, the authors’ quote:

“Whether in the form of aspiring to hold the creative tensions of multiple perspectives or polarities in a conversation from a place of equanimity; sitting a few minutes in engaged silence in ones’ class, supporting, enacting and drawing from the intersubjecive field of learning; listening from and being the relationship with one’s students, engaging in contemplative practices with one’s students before, during and after class; occasioning situations that attend to class subject in relations to the dynamics of our richly dimensioned inner lives (cognitively, somatically, aesthetically, emotionally, spiritually) and outer world, contemplative approaches to teaching and learning are informed by the needs for wholeness, integration interrelatedness, completion and unity.” (O. Gunnlaughson, E. W. Sarath, C. Scott and H. Bai 2014, pg. 5)

The issue of lateral violence is a multi-faceted and complex one. Discussions about colonization, parenting, education, bullying, and racism to name few topics require our attention. Needless to say there are multiple experiences and perspectives on all of these issues. Discussions must be carefully facilitated and prior to any discussion a safe container needs to be created (S. Schuiteveorder, 2010). Participants require some familiarity with the issues and root causes as well as knowledge about how to have respectful dialogue from a place of inquiry and curiosity. Participants would then be ready to engage in generative dialogue about the problems and possible community centered solutions. I see this unfolding as a serious of dialogues that occur followed by personal reflection, relationship building and debrief exercises. In order to do this the facilitator must offer participant tools to remain present and embodied in the classroom. (B. Berila, 2014, pg. 2). According to Berila in an article entitled Contemplating the Effects of Oppression: Integrating Mindfulness into Diversity Classrooms, educators need to be prepared for reactions that result from being a member of marginalized groups in society when undertaking mindfulness exercises. Again, needless to say, the personal and professional mastery, sensitivity and grounded-ness of the facilitator are central to the success of facilitating this training.

The intention of this program is to raise awareness of the issues and create a structure that enables transformation, self-reflection and growth, compassion and care for others, and the ability to engage in generative dialogue. It it vital that participants are led to discover and enact heir own solutions in response to lateral violence otherwise we are are at risk of imposing a “right way” of doing things that may run contrary to the inner most knowing of people in community.

In order to customize this program effectively to meet the diverse needs of communities collaboration with the stakeholders is central to its success. This would generally occur during a series of consults with the client to discuss context specific issues leading the request for training to address lateral violence. Where possible it would be advisable to interview as many of the participants anonymously before hand in order to hear from those that may not otherwise be forthcoming about their concerns. This also helps the facilitator prepare for whatever might come up during the course of the training. This also helps create a sense of familiarity and safety for participants ahead of time. Where possible it is also important to garner buy-in from leadership before engaging participants in a transformative process. Transformation comes with risk and unknown factors. (M. Poutiatine 2010, pg. 192) and requires a willingness to change. In my experience participants are unlikely to be willing to take this risk if they don’t feel supported by their leaders.

Drawing on from a model called Legal Literacy Approaches (© W. Cassidy 2014) I’ve drafted, in part, learning goals and approaches for this program to be delivered to two specific target audiences. Please note that these are draft and I suspect with become more refined as the specific curriculum is redeveloped.

Leaders and Administrations

Leaders and administrators generally engage my services to better understand how to deal with what they consider to be dysfunctional behavior in members. They want to affect change. To this request my response is that it is important to avoid instrumental practices that further objectify and marginalization members (H. Bai, 2001, pg. 5). Further, administrators are also experiencing significant amount of conflict with each other as a result of misunderstanding and unspoken issues of racism, ageism, genders, sexism and classism. An intervention for a group of administrators would include learning goals that combine conceptual, practical and participatory approaches. Administrators would benefit from greater self-understanding but also need to define over arching issues as well as different ways to see and approach the problem. A facilitated discussion about leading and supporting transformation and creating structures that enable an ethic of care throughout the community and organization would be also be an important theme in this training.

The pedagogy would include a series of focused discussions; dyad and small group discussions, personal reflection, guided visualization, contemplative inquiry and generative dialogue. Where appropriate inclusion of traditional forms of teaching would be incorporated such as prayer, drumming, singing, storytelling and dancing.

Community Members

Community member workshops are different in nature. There is usually a desire to alleviate suffering for members of the community. This includes breaking down barriers that are contributing to feelings of isolation. Many members are in conflict and experience a feeling of detachment from each other. The approach for this group would be predominantly participatory and practical. Providing members with an experience in which their defense mechanisms can come down and in which the can feel cared for by each other is most important. Community members also want to know what to do when faced with difficult relational situations such as bullying. Some time spent on developing personal copying skills, stress reduction, confidence in finding one’s voice and engaging in dialogue as well as knowing who to go to for help would be useful.

I utilized the cube model to help develop potential learning goals found below and broken into 3 areas including Developing Knowledge and Understanding, Developing Skills and Critical Judgement and Developing Citizenship Attributes and Self Efficacy. This model is copyrighted to Wendy Cassidy (Literacy Approaches, © W. Cassidy, 2014)

Developing Knowledge & Understanding         

  • Knowing what lateral violence is and is not.
  • Understanding etiology…affects of colonization and residential school (Identification with power of abuser, displaced aggression & bullying)
  • Knowing the spectrum of violence in families, organizations and communities (degrees of manifestations)
  • Knowing themes around care, compassion and kindness
  • Understanding the conflict between belonging and individuation.
  • Understanding how transformation unfolds
  • Gaining insight into human behavior and knowing how to respond effectively
  • Increasing self-awareness and a shift in focus from other to self.
  • Practicing a personal ethic of care
  • Develop increased understanding of individual and group dynamics through dyad and group discussion
  • Practice self reflection through the use of meditation and visualization
  • Engaging in and practicing contemplative inquiry and generative dialogue
  • Increasing capacity for vulnerability in relationships by engaging in feedback conversation and appreciative practices

Developing Skills & Critical Judgment

  • Examining traditional vs. contemporary life, beliefs and values including themes around belonging, empathy, care, compassion, vulnerability and morality
  • Exploring different approaches to addressing problems such as bullying and violence. For example, power theories and attachment theory.
  • Analyzing research on bullying and cyber bullying
  • Discussing different ways of supporting transformation Knowing what one can do to affect change, break the cycle as a parent, leader, educator and community member
  • Utilization of traditional forms of contemplative practices for resolving conflict, seeking guidance, reflecting and taking care of ones self
  • Knowing how to respond to bullying and aggression
  • Engaging in collaborative learning
  • Practicing deep listening
  • Questioning is valued over giving answers
  • Focusing on process over content
  • Students participate through sharing openly first person subjective experiences
  • Engaging in contemplative inquiry in regards to each topic

Developing Citizenship Attributes & Self-Efficacy

  • Using a traditional approach to discussing…. talking circle
  • Being confident and empowered to affect change
  • Values diversity…moved to extend caring to those who are different or who we don’t understand
  • Recognizing one’s role in creating change
  • Understanding the importance of maintaining one’s integrity during times of transformation Developing self-awareness, developing ones own sense of power and authority.
  • Ability to respond in the moment to sensitive situations in a way that is respectful and healing
  • Developing awareness of one’s own triggers and edges during times of transformation and being able to stay present through mindfulness
  • Everyone takes ownership for the problem and discuss possible solutions
  • Developing the desire to understand
  • Everyone applies what they have learned in their relationships
  • and assess the impact
  • Plan next steps…possible community project
  • Demonstrating confidence to find and use one’s own voice

Formative and summative evaluation would be completed formally and informally. Most importantly, this is a living curriculum so the the facilitator must be attuned to group dynamics in order to be flexible and willing to adapt depending on the groups needs and responses to curriculum. It’s important that the facilitator-check in with the group throughout the training to ensure that learning goals are still relevant and are being met and if not be able to change direction. Discussion groups and small group activities where community members demonstrate understanding and application of their new knowledge and understanding provide a good indicator of learning as well as the quality of discussions taking place. A written evaluation is always provided at the end of the training in order to give folks a chance to provide critical feedback that might not otherwise be shared. This would be followed up with a consult with the client immediately following the session as well as a check in a few months to a year later to see what occurred since the training took place. Interviews with participants afterwards to see what changes, if any, took place for them as a result of participating in such a program would be a recommended way of assessing the programs effectiveness. This would also reveal what in particular was most useful to people. My sense is that program effectiveness will be more difficult to measure, as many of the changes will be subjective and different for everyone. The ultimate question to be answers is…has the quality of life improved for participants and those in their circle of influence.

This program will continue to be developed based on research in contemplative inquiry and approaches, transformational education theory and integral theory, empathy research, ethics of care, attachment theory, bullying and relationship building.

Below I have included a draft description of the program that can be currently found on my website ( Please note that this for use on my website only to provide folks who visit my site with a sense of the essence of my approach. I find that those who respond to this blurb are generally a good fit in terms of my philosophy and approach.

It Takes A Village
Working Together Towards Healing

We are social creatures that have traditionally flourished in community. We are not meant to go it alone. The need to belong is one we can all identify with. Belonging brings us great joy, a sense of identity, security and most importantly relationships with those whom we have something deeply in common. Our elders tell us that in the long ago our communities were founded on our inter-generational relationships with each other, the earth, animals and ancestors. An ethical relational way of being and knowing has ensured our survival for centuries. All of our working, living, and celebrating unfolded in the spirit of inclusiveness and belonging. A connection to the land, animals, cosmos and each other provided the context for us to all be on the same side working together for the benefit of the community. Contemporary life has changed the way live and work. Those of us who have experienced the alienation that is a product of contemporary life can speak to the deep wounding affect this has had on our body, mind and spirit that has led to a breakdown in our communities. The oppressive affects of colonization and residential school have impacted many generations resulting in dysfunction and ultimately lateral violence throughout every context in our communities. There is much hope though. Drawing on our resiliency as Indigenous peoples and with vision and dedication we can repair our relationships and begin to heal our communities.

Suggested outcomes for this program are as follows: Participants will be supported to…

  • Integrate indigenous perspectives and approaches to understanding and transforming lateral violence and creating environments that promote safety, wellness, and health;
  • Develop the confidence and capacity to effectively respond to lateral violence in ways that honor traditional life ways and that lead to increased wellness and healing;
  • Explore ways to transform the affects of ethno-stress, intergenerational trauma and residential school by supporting individual and collective development, creation of a new vision, healing, a holistic approach;
  • Practice embodying ways of being in response to lateral violence that de-escalates conflict, increases awareness and understanding and promotes safety for everyone;
  • Discuss the importance of prevention initiatives and what global bullying research tells us about effective approaches to a growing problem. Where should we be focusing our energies?
  • Engage in experiential, interactive and fun activities that promote relationship building, learning and growth.

The topic is a complex one and difficult to tackle. The ideas presented here are in no way set in stone. This is simply a reflection of what I have learned over the years refined by the learning that has taken place for me as a result of my participation in this Masters in Contemplative Inquiry and Approaches in Education program. This program is and will continue to be a work in progress. As I continue to develop myself and deepen my own understanding the curriculum will continue to evolve. With each encounter I have with people in communities I inevitably grow and as a result the curriculum changes. It is not my intention to change people but rather to create a safe container in which people can explore these important issues while deepening their understanding of themselves and each other. As Dr. Heesoon Bai states in an article entitled Cultivating Democratic Citizenship (Bai, 2010, pg. 6) the public space can be very dangerous to those of us who fear being received instrumentally. I know this be true. For me the fist steps towards transformation include engaging people, having them feel safe, illuminating the issues, presenting and inviting all the different perspectives and voices, facilitating discourse and supporting generative dialogue and moments of transformation. A large part of the success of this program, I believe, is based on the skills of the facilitator in holding the secondary curriculum. In many respects the facilitator must be able to lead people into vulnerable territory (Neufeld 2015) where many unknowns exists. If new answers to these seemingly perpetual problems are to be found they will be found in knowledge as an emerging phenomenon amongst members of the community. (H. Bai, 2015).


Albareda, R. ,. (2005). Integral Transformative Education, A Participatory Proposal. Journal of Transformative Education , 3 (4).

Bai, H. a. (2014). Contemplative Learnign and Inquiry Across Disciplines. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Bai, H. (2001). Cultivating Democratic Citizenship: Towards Intersubjectivity. In Philosphy of Education: Introductory Readings (Revised 3rd Edition ed.). Calgary, AB, Canada: Detselig Enterprises Ltd.

Berila, B. (2014). Contemplating the Effects of Oppression: Integrating Mindfuless into Diversity Classrooms. The Journal of Contemplative Inquiry (1).

Cassidy, W. a. (2009). Values and Ethics In Educational Administration. D.J. Willower Center for The Study of Leadership & Ethics , 7 (3).

Freire, P. (2005). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York, NY, United States: The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc.

Gregory Cajete, P. (1994). Look To The Mountain, An Ecology of Indigenous Education. Durango, Colarado, US: Kivaki Press.

Koshy, E. a. (2011). Action Reserach In Health Care. In Action Reserach In Health Care. Sage Publications.

Mezirow, J. (1997). Transformative Learning: Theory to Practice. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education (74).

Noddings, N. (1986). Caring, A Relational Approach to Ethics and Moral Education. Berkley, CA, United States: University of California Press.

Noddings, N. (2012). Philosphy of Eduation (Third ed.). Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Poutiatine, M. I. (2009). What is Transformation?: Nine Princples Toward an Understanding, Transformational Process for Transformational Leadership. Journal of Transformative Education .

Residential Schools. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Canadian Encylopedia:

[1] Lateral violence: residential schools have been suggested as the primary cause of a cluster of behaviours known as lateral violence thought to be prevalent within Aboriginal communities. Lateral violence can occur within oppressed societies and include bullying, gossiping, feuding, shaming, and blaming other members of one’s own social group as well as having a lack of trust toward other group members.

[2] According to the Canadian Encylopedia, Residential schools were government-sponsored religious schools established to assimilate Aboriginal children into Euro-Canadian culture. Although the first residential facilities were established in New France, the term usually refers to the custodial schools established after 1880. Originally conceived by Christian churches and the Canadian government as an attempt to both educate and convert Aboriginal youth and to integrate them into Canadian society, residential schools disrupted lives and communities, causing long-term problems among Aboriginal peoples.

[3] Action Research – which is also known as Participatory Action Research (PAR), community-based study, co-operative enquiry, action science and action learning – is an approach commonly used for improving conditions and practices in range healthcare environments (Lingard et al., 2008; Whitehead et al., 2003).

[4] Merriam Webster defines phenomenology as the study of the development of human consciousness and self-awareness as a preface to or a part of philosophy; a philosophical movement that describes the formal structure of the objects of awareness and of awareness itself in abstraction from any claims concerning existence; the typological classification of a class of phenomena <the phenomenology of religion>; an analysis produced by phenomenological investigation.

[5] According to Wikipedia, in the social sciences and life sciences, a case study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a subject of study (the case), as well as its related contextual conditions.

[6] Scharmer’s (2000, 2003) account of generative dialogue has been more recently applied in the Generative Dialogue Project, a global community of practice the focuses on projects that bring generative dialogue processes into mainstream use for personal and social transformation, particularly within contexts of global governance institutions, including business, government and civil society.        

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